You Rang? (Learning Theories)

Copyright 2003 David A. Wheeler, Ph.D., PHR, CMT  NoStress@mail.com   Last updated 10/11/05 04:10 PM

  1. Classical Conditioning

    Person to  Know: Pavlov

    What is learned: stimulus -> stimulus

  2. Operant Conditioning

    Person to Know: B.F. Skinner

    What is Learned: behavior -> consequence

  3. Observational Learning (Social learning theory)

    Person to Know: Albert Bandura

    What is learned: Learn by watching others

 

 

 

 

Once again ... with details

1. Classical Conditioning

Person to Know: Pavlov

What is learned: stimulus -> stimulus

US -> UR  Biological Response

NS + US   Learning

NS -> CS after learning
CS by itself -> CR

To make conditioning occur

forward conditioning: present CS first then overlap with US, best if it starts within 1 second

reverse conditioning: CS happens after US, learning does not occur

trace  conditioning: (memory trace) CS happens before US, stops, then US occurs OK but not best
 

To break conditioning
Extinction: Present CS without US enough and CR goes away


Counterconditioning: Pair with incompatible response
Behavior substitution: do a behavior that is similar to the behavior you want to get rid of
Aversion Conditioning: pair bad US  with CS
Flooding: present overwhelming stimulus and make person relax
Systematic Desensitization: present a hierarchy of scary things until you learn to relax
Chaining: Behavior is a chain of smaller behaviors. To make changes:

Break links
rearrange order
add links
add delays
Environmental Planning: conditioning to specific parts of your environment
discrimination


2. Operant Conditioning

Person to Know: B.F. Skinner

What is Learned: behavior -> consequence

reinforcer: something which changes or maintains behavior

positive reinforcer: something you like

negative reinforcer (punisher): something you dislike

Reinforcement: How reinforcer is given -- what are the contingencies?

 

Table of Contingencies

  Get  Remove
Like   Positive Reinforcement
increases behavior
Negative Punishment (Response Cost)
decreases behavior
Dislike Positive Punishment
decreases behavior
 Negative Reinforcement
(escape learning, avoidance)
increases behavior

Changing behaviors

figure out what is positive and negative reinforcer
figure out the contingency
extinction
punishment needs to be accompanied with the positive alternative

Schedules of Reinforcement

Continuous: get reinforcer every time do behavior, easiest to learn, least resistant to extinction

Intermittent: get reinforcer sometimes

Interval: A certain amount of time has to pass before your behavior will get you the reinforcer
Fixed Interval Schedule: Fixed amount of time passes

Variable Interval Schedule: variable amount of time passes

Ratio Schedules: based on how many times you do the behavior
Fixed Ratio Schedule: fixed number of behaviors

Variable Ratio Schedule: variable number of behaviors, hardest to learn, maintain the highest frequency of behavior, most resistant to extinction

Variable reward: amount of reinforcer is variable

Premack Principle: you can reinforce a less desirable behavior with a more desirable one, you can reinforce something you do at a low frequency with something you do at a high frequency

The reinforcer ALWAYS has to come after the behavior
 

3. Observational Learning (Social learning theory)

Person to Know: Albert Bandura

What is learned: Learn by watching others

 

Vicarious Learning: the classical or operant conditioning is happening to someone else

Modeling: imitating someone who has what you want with the belief that if you do what they do, you will get what they get

Self-efficacy: your belief that you can accomplish a specific task

people with high self-efficacy stick with a task longer and are more resistant to stress
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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Last modified: 10/11/05