Copyright 2001 David A. Wheeler, Ph.D., PHR, CMT   Last updated 06/30/05 09:42 PM

File: training.htm

Classical Conditioning
stimulus -> stimulus

Operant Conditioning
behavior -> consequence

Observational Learning (Social learning theory)
learn by watching others

Once Again with Details . . . 

Classical Conditioning
stimulus -> stimulus
US -> UR
NS -> CS
CS -> CR

To make conditioning occur

forward conditioning: present CS first then overlap with US, best if it starts within 1 second

reverse conditioning: CS happens after US, learning does not occur

trace  conditioning: (memory trace) CS happens before US, stops, then US occurs OK but not best

To break conditioning
Extinction: Present CS without US enough and CR goes away
Counterconditioning: Pair with incompatible response
Behavior substitution: do a behavior that is similar to the behavior you want to get rid of
Aversion Conditioning: pair bad US  with CS
Flooding: present overwhelming stimulus and make person relax
Systematic Desensitization: present a hierarchy of scary things until you learn to relax
Chaining: Behavior is a chain of smaller behaviors. To make changes:
Break links
rearrange order
add links
add delays
Environmental Planning: conditioning to specific parts of your environment

Operant Conditioning
behavior -> consequence

reinforcer: something which changes or maintains behavior

positive reinforcer: something you like
negative reinforcer (punisher): something you dislike
Reinforcement: How reinforcer is given -- what are the contingencies?
  Get  Remove
Like   Positive Reinforcement
increases behavior
Negative Punishment
decreases behavior
Dislike Positive Punishment
decreases behavior
 Negative Reinforcement
(escape learning, avoidance)
increases behavior

Changing behaviors

figure out what is positive and negative reinforcer
figure out the contingency
punishment needs to be accompanied with the positive alternative
Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous: get reinforcer every time do behavior, easiest to learn, least resistant to extinction

Intermittent: get reinforcer sometimes

Interval: A certain amount of time has to pass before your behavior will get you the reinforcer
Fixed Interval Schedule: Fixed amount of time passes

Variable Interval Schedule: variable amount of time passes

Ratio Schedules: based on how many times you do the behavior
Fixed Ratio Schedule: fixed number of behaviors

Variable Ratio Schedule: variable number of behaviors, hardest to learn, maintain the highest frequency of behavior, most resistant to extinction

Variable reward: amount of reinforcer is variable

Premack Principle: you can reinforce a less desirable behavior with a more desirable one, you can reinforce something you do at a low frequency with something you do at a high frequency

The reinforcer ALWAYS has to come after the behavior

Observational Learning (Social learning theory)
learn by watching others

Vicarious Learning: the classical or operant conditioning is happenning to someone else

Modeling: imitating someone who has what you want with the belief that if you do what they do, you will get what they get

Self-efficacy: your belief that you can accomplish a specific task

people with high self-efficacy stick with a task longer and are more resistant to stress

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Needs Assessment

Task Analysis
Person Analysis

Training Principles

Distributed (for complex tasks) vs Massed(for simple tasks) practice
Active vs Passive Practice
Part vs Whole


Methods of Training





Vestibule: separate training facility



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Last modified: 10/04/05